Chapter 11

Aquatic Toxicology

    • Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 required criteria to be determined for many chemicals. 
      • These are published in the EPA Redbook.
    • Very little is known about the chronic (long term) effects of low levels of contaminants 
      • and few organisms have been tested 
    • Testing is complex. Mixtures of chemicals, habitat, point in life cycle, concentration, 
      • exposure time, manner sediments release all effect toxicity.
    • Acute toxicity testing usually measures the
      • concentration level that kills 50% of the organisms in 96 hrs. for fish or 48 hrs. for invertebrates.
    • Chronic toxicity testing may measure reproduction,
      • survival or growth.

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